Executive Summary

Summary
Title L3 CPU shared cache architecture is susceptible to a Flush+Reload side-channel attack
Informations
Name VU#976534 First vendor Publication 2013-10-01
Vendor VU-CERT Last vendor Modification 2013-10-01
Severity (Vendor) N/A Revision M

Security-Database Scoring CVSS v3

Cvss vector : N/A
Overall CVSS Score NA
Base Score NA Environmental Score NA
impact SubScore NA Temporal Score NA
Exploitabality Sub Score NA
 
Calculate full CVSS 3.0 Vectors scores

Security-Database Scoring CVSS v2

Cvss vector : (AV:L/AC:M/Au:N/C:P/I:N/A:N)
Cvss Base Score 1.9 Attack Range Local
Cvss Impact Score 2.9 Attack Complexity Medium
Cvss Expoit Score 3.4 Authentication None Required
Calculate full CVSS 2.0 Vectors scores

Detail

Vulnerability Note VU#976534

L3 CPU shared cache architecture is susceptible to a Flush+Reload side-channel attack

Original Release date: 01 Oct 2013 | Last revised: 01 Oct 2013

Overview

L3 CPU shared cache architecture is susceptible to a Flush+Reload side-channel attack, resulting in information leakage. allowing a local attacker to derive the contents of memory not belonging to the attacker.

Description

Common L3 CPU shared cache architecture is susceptible to a Flush+Reload side-channel attack, as described in "Flush+Reload: a High Resolution, Low Noise, L3 Cache Side-Channel Attack" by Yarom and Falkner.

By manipulating memory stored in the L3 cache by a target process and observing timing differences between requests for cached and non-cached memory, an attacker can derive specific information about the target process. The paper demonstrates an attack against GnuPG on an Intel Ivy Bridge platform that recovers over 98% of the bits of an RSA private key.

This vulnerability is an example of CWE-200: Information Exposure.

Impact

A local attacker can derive the contents of memory shared with another process on the same L3 cache (same physical CPU). Virtualization and cryptographic software are examples that are likely to be vulnerable.

An attacker on the same host operating system only needs read access to the executable file or a shared library component of the target process.

An attacker on a different virtual machine similarly needs access to an exact copy of the executable or shared library used by the target process, and the hypervisor needs to have memory page de-duplication enabled.

Solution

Apply an Update
See the Vendor Information section below for additional information.

GnuPG has released GnuPG version 1.4.14 and Libgcrypt 1.5.3 to to address this vulnerability. CVE-2013-4242 has been assigned to the specific GnuPG vulnerability described in the Yarom/Falkner paper. The CVSS score below applies specifically to CVE-2013-4242.

Disable Memory Page De-duplication

To prevent this attack on virtualization platforms, disable hypervisor memory page de-duplication.

Vendor Information (Learn More)

VendorStatusDate NotifiedDate Updated
libgcryptAffected16 Aug 201316 Aug 2013
Linux KVMAffected15 Aug 201316 Aug 2013
Red Hat, Inc.Affected13 Sep 201313 Sep 2013
VMwareAffected16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
XenAffected16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
CryptlibNot Affected16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
GnuTLSNot Affected16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
Intel CorporationNot Affected16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
OpenSSLNot Affected16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
AmazonUnknown16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
AMDUnknown16 Aug 201316 Aug 2013
AttachmateUnknown16 Aug 201303 Sep 2013
CerticomUnknown16 Aug 201316 Aug 2013
Crypto++ LibraryUnknown16 Aug 201316 Aug 2013
EMC CorporationUnknown16 Aug 201316 Aug 2013
If you are a vendor and your product is affected, let us know.View More »

CVSS Metrics (Learn More)

GroupScoreVector
Base2.4AV:L/AC:H/Au:S/C:P/I:P/A:N
Temporal1.9E:POC/RL:OF/RC:C
Environmental2.3CDP:ND/TD:M/CR:H/IR:H/AR:ND

References

  • http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/448.pdf
  • http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/200.html
  • http://lists.gnupg.org/pipermail/gnupg-announce/2013q3/000330.html
  • http://lists.gnupg.org/pipermail/gnupg-announce/2013q3/000329.html

Credit

Thanks to Yuval Yarom and Katrina Falkner for reporting this vulnerability and for help writing this document.

This document was written by Adam Rauf.

Other Information

  • CVE IDs:CVE-2013-4242
  • Date Public:05 Sep 2013
  • Date First Published:01 Oct 2013
  • Date Last Updated:01 Oct 2013
  • Document Revision:33

Feedback

If you have feedback, comments, or additional information about this vulnerability, please send us email.

Original Source

Url : http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/976534

CWE : Common Weakness Enumeration

% Id Name
100 % CWE-200 Information Exposure

OVAL Definitions

Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:17876
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:17876
Title: USN-1923-1 -- gnupg, libgcrypt11 vulnerability
Description: GnuPG and Libgcrypt could be made to expose sensitive information.
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): USN-1923-1
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 7
Platform(s): Ubuntu 13.04
Ubuntu 12.10
Ubuntu 12.04
Ubuntu 10.04
Product(s): gnupg
libgcrypt11
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:18882
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:18882
Title: DSA-2730-1 gnupg - information leak
Description: Yarom and Falkner discovered that RSA secret keys could be leaked via a side channel attack, where a malicious local user could obtain private key information from another user on the system.
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): DSA-2730-1
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 8
Platform(s): Debian GNU/Linux 6.0
Debian GNU/Linux 7
Debian GNU/kFreeBSD 6.0
Debian GNU/kFreeBSD 7
Product(s): gnupg
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:18887
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:18887
Title: DSA-2731-1 libgcrypt11 - information leak
Description: Yarom and Falkner discovered that RSA secret keys in applications using the libgcrypt11 library, for example GnuPG 2.x, could be leaked via a side channel attack, where a malicious local user could obtain private key information from another user on the system.
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): DSA-2731-1
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 8
Platform(s): Debian GNU/Linux 6.0
Debian GNU/Linux 7
Debian GNU/kFreeBSD 6.0
Debian GNU/kFreeBSD 7
Product(s): libgcrypt11
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:21277
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:21277
Title: RHSA-2013:1457: libgcrypt security update (Moderate)
Description: GnuPG before 1.4.14, and Libgcrypt before 1.5.3 as used in GnuPG 2.0.x and possibly other products, allows local users to obtain private RSA keys via a cache side-channel attack involving the L3 cache, aka Flush+Reload.
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): RHSA-2013:1457-00
CESA-2013:1457
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 4
Platform(s): Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
CentOS Linux 5
CentOS Linux 6
Product(s): libgcrypt
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:23444
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:23444
Title: DEPRECATED: ELSA-2013:1457: libgcrypt security update (Moderate)
Description: GnuPG before 1.4.14, and Libgcrypt before 1.5.3 as used in GnuPG 2.0.x and possibly other products, allows local users to obtain private RSA keys via a cache side-channel attack involving the L3 cache, aka Flush+Reload.
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): ELSA-2013:1457-00
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 7
Platform(s): Oracle Linux 5
Oracle Linux 6
Product(s): libgcrypt
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:24005
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:24005
Title: ELSA-2013:1457: libgcrypt security update (Moderate)
Description: GnuPG before 1.4.14, and Libgcrypt before 1.5.3 as used in GnuPG 2.0.x and possibly other products, allows local users to obtain private RSA keys via a cache side-channel attack involving the L3 cache, aka Flush+Reload.
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): ELSA-2013:1457-00
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 6
Platform(s): Oracle Linux 5
Oracle Linux 6
Product(s): libgcrypt
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:25331
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:25331
Title: SUSE-SU-2014:0704-1 -- Security update for libgcrypt
Description: libgcrypt has been updated to fix a cryptographic weakness. * CVE-2013-4242: libgcrypt was affected by the Yarom/Falkner flush+reload side-channel attach on RSA secret keys, that could have potentially leaked the key data to attackers on the same machine.
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): SUSE-SU-2014:0704-1
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 3
Platform(s): SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11
Product(s): libgcrypt
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:25485
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:25485
Title: SUSE-SU-2013:1352-1 -- Security update for libgcrypt
Description: This update of libgcrypt mitigates the Yarom/Falkner flush+reload side-channel attack on RSA secret keys (CVE-2013-4242). Security Issue reference: * CVE-2013-4242 <http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2013-4242 >
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): SUSE-SU-2013:1352-1
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 3
Platform(s): SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11
Product(s): libgcrypt
Definition Synopsis:
Definition Id: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:27177
 
Oval ID: oval:org.mitre.oval:def:27177
Title: DEPRECATED: ELSA-2013-1457 -- libgcrypt security update (moderate)
Description: [1.4.5-11] - fix CVE-2013-4242 GnuPG/libgcrypt susceptible to cache side-channel attack [1.4.5-10] - Add GCRYCTL_SET_ENFORCED_FIPS_FLAG command
Family: unix Class: patch
Reference(s): ELSA-2013-1457
CVE-2013-4242
Version: 4
Platform(s): Oracle Linux 5
Oracle Linux 6
Product(s): libgcrypt
Definition Synopsis:

CPE : Common Platform Enumeration

TypeDescriptionCount
Application 115
Application 82
Os 4
Os 2
Os 2

Information Assurance Vulnerability Management (IAVM)

Date Description
2014-05-01 IAVM : 2014-A-0062 - Multiple Vulnerabilities In McAfee Email Gateway
Severity : Category I - VMSKEY : V0050005

Nessus® Vulnerability Scanner

Date Description
2016-06-22 Name : The remote OracleVM host is missing a security update.
File : oraclevm_OVMSA-2016-0062.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2016-02-22 Name : The remote device is missing a vendor-supplied security patch.
File : f5_bigip_SOL75253136.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2015-01-19 Name : The remote Solaris system is missing a security patch for third-party software.
File : solaris11_libgcrypt_20140512.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2014-11-08 Name : The remote Red Hat host is missing a security update.
File : redhat-RHSA-2013-1527.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2014-06-10 Name : The remote Fedora host is missing a security update.
File : fedora_2014-6851.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2014-02-23 Name : The remote Gentoo host is missing one or more security-related patches.
File : gentoo_GLSA-201402-24.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-27 Name : The remote CentOS host is missing one or more security updates.
File : centos_RHSA-2013-1457.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-27 Name : The remote CentOS host is missing a security update.
File : centos_RHSA-2013-1458.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-25 Name : The remote Oracle Linux host is missing one or more security updates.
File : oraclelinux_ELSA-2013-1457.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-25 Name : The remote Scientific Linux host is missing one or more security updates.
File : sl_20131024_libgcrypt_on_SL5_x.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-25 Name : The remote Scientific Linux host is missing one or more security updates.
File : sl_20131024_gnupg_on_SL5_x.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-25 Name : The remote Red Hat host is missing one or more security updates.
File : redhat-RHSA-2013-1458.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-25 Name : The remote Red Hat host is missing one or more security updates.
File : redhat-RHSA-2013-1457.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-25 Name : The remote Oracle Linux host is missing a security update.
File : oraclelinux_ELSA-2013-1458.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-01 Name : The remote Amazon Linux AMI host is missing a security update.
File : ala_ALAS-2013-226.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-10-01 Name : The remote Amazon Linux AMI host is missing a security update.
File : ala_ALAS-2013-225.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-20 Name : The remote FreeBSD host is missing one or more security-related updates.
File : freebsd_pkg_689c2bf7070111e39a25002590860428.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-16 Name : The remote SuSE 11 host is missing one or more security updates.
File : suse_11_libgcrypt-130813.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-15 Name : The remote Fedora host is missing a security update.
File : fedora_2013-13940.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-10 Name : The remote Fedora host is missing a security update.
File : fedora_2013-13975.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-05 Name : The remote Slackware host is missing a security update.
File : Slackware_SSA_2013-215-01.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-02 Name : The remote Mandriva Linux host is missing one or more security updates.
File : mandriva_MDVSA-2013-205.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-02 Name : The remote Fedora host is missing a security update.
File : fedora_2013-13678.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-02 Name : The remote Fedora host is missing a security update.
File : fedora_2013-13671.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-08-01 Name : The remote Ubuntu host is missing one or more security-related patches.
File : ubuntu_USN-1923-1.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-07-30 Name : The remote Debian host is missing a security-related update.
File : debian_DSA-2731.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO
2013-07-30 Name : The remote Debian host is missing a security-related update.
File : debian_DSA-2730.nasl - Type : ACT_GATHER_INFO

Alert History

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0
1
Date Informations
2013-10-08 00:23:02
  • Multiple Updates
2013-10-01 17:18:34
  • First insertion